Legal Guilt Versus Moral Guilt In the Courtroom

images (1)A frequent question asked by people to defense lawyers is invariably always the same: How do you defend someone you know is guilty? For your undersigned, since my beginning years in 1980, the question often became an issue every time a person learned I practice criminal law, and I am sure it’s the same for any defense attorney in North America. The answer to that question is almost the same everywhere, clients are presumed innocent until guilt is proven beyond reasonable doubt. Now lets elaborate a little further in this concept. Financial Malpractice Litigation.

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Financial Translations – A High-Demand Area in Translation Services

images (4)Most global businesses require the services of specialized language translation for filing documents, reports and papers with various regulatory organizations. With the help from a translation service in Toronto, Ottawa or Montreal, businesses are able to get their critical financial and legal documents professionally translated. Both public and private companies with international operations look for highly specialized financial translation services to support their global business processes, and use translation services to comply with local reporting requirements. This understandably calls for highly specialized language translation providers who are familiar with the financial industry and its associated regulations.

While using financial translation services, first look for service providers who have a good understanding of the laws and regulations in the target region which are an important factor in the global financial services industry. A reputable translation Toronto, Ottawa, or Montreal based company will invest the necessary attention to detail and also have an understanding of confidentiality and privacy laws related to filings and audits which are a must in the financial translation space.

Secondly, choose translators with specific areas of expertise in the field of financial translation. Just as there are experts in the medical, legal, and engineering sectors, the language services industry has specialists in the financial industry. Ensure to choose a reputable translation Toronto, Ottawa, or Montreal based company who can provide you with accurate translations of financial and legal terminology between the source and target languages. In addition, their translators must also be familiar with the business cultures applicable in both linguistic regions.

Thirdly, even though most of the translation providers promise rapid turnaround, it is essential to verify whether your chosen translation service is able to indeed provide a reliable turnaround to meet your deadline. Here you need to pay close attention to the project management system and quality control mechanisms that the translation company incorporates in their working process. Check references from previous clients to assure yourself you are dealing with a company that delivers what it promises. Financial Malpractice Litigation Services.

Quite often businesses are active in many different regions of the globe, so they have translation requirements in multiple languages. For example, a company might require a reliable translation company that is capable of providing high quality financial translation service in Spanish translation along with French, German, Russian, Chinese and other languages.

In addition to ensuring that your translation service selects a qualified translator for your translation project, also make sure that they will provide you with independent proofreading to verify the accuracy of the first translator’s work. Therefore, work with a provider that will carefully cross-check translated copies against the original to ensure accuracy and completeness in the translated documents.

In today’s increasingly globalized business environment, there is a huge demand for professional financial translation services to support their clients in their complex international business operations. There are many reputable translation firms in Toronto, Ottawa, or Montreal. Select your translation service carefully.


How to Navigate the Complexities of the Montreal Protocol

images (3)Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) are substances that threaten the environment by depleting the earth’s stratosphere. This stratosphere is also known as the ozone layer. The Montreal Protocol was established years ago to eliminate the emission of gases that destroy the ozone layer. The common ODS today are hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).

The manufacturing and use of ozone depleting substances (ODS) have continued to be phased out under the regulations defined in The Montreal Protocol. Continued improvements will further restrict ODS use in the coming years. These substances are chlorofluorocarbons, halons, carbon tetrachloride and methyl chloroform. Also included are hydrochlorofluorocarbons, which contribute to global warming and enhanced levels of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs). Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are used in refrigerants, solvents, fire extinguishers and the manufacture of plastic foam.

The Montreal Protocol followed the international Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer agreement, which ended in 1985. In 1990 and 1992, the Montreal Protocol was amended significantly to extend the 2000 refrigerant gas phase out deadline. Through further enhancements, organizations in many countries may continue to use CHCs but only up to 15 percent of the 1986 baseline. This extension was aimed at helping developing countries meet their needs for essential items like medical devices. Developing countries, however, have a deadline of 2010 to phase out chlorofluorocarbons and carbon tetrachloride and until 2015 to stop production of methyl chloroform.

The revised Montreal Protocol currently calls for developed countries, such as the United States, to phase out hydrochlorofluorocarbons according to the following schedule: 35% reduction in 2004; 65% reduction in 2010; 90% reduction in 2015; 99.5% reduction in 2020; and 100% phase out in 2030. The agreement calls for 0.5 percent to be established as reserves to service repairs on HVAC-R systems and equipment. For developing countries, 2040 is the deadline for a complete phase out of hydrochlorofluorocarbons.

In establishing a timeframe for reducing the use of ozone depleting substances, the Montreal Protocol looked at scientific, environmental, technical and economic information. Several reports are looking into alternatives that can be used to replace ozone depleting substances in the areas of refrigeration, agriculture, energy production, and laboratory measurements.

A key component of the Montreal Protocol agreement is its continuous monitoring of facilities to make certain that proper control measures are in place for dealing with substances that are harmful to the environment, i.e. most often called ozone depleting substances (ODS). Clean-Tech development companies often specialize in refrigerant management programs. Organizations like this help organizations follow the regulations and mandates as defined for ozone destruction. Refrigerant tracking solutions, when deployed as a web-based solution, are a helpful tool in ensuring that the necessary forms are submitted to meet the EPA reporting requirements.

Because various industries have focused their efforts on air pollutants, the use of many ozone depleting substances has already been greatly reduced. The Montreal Protocol, via unprecedented international cooperation, is working well with goal to be achieved ahead of schedule. The focus, however, remains on companies and industries that fail to comply with the protocols under the agreement. Financial Malpractice Cash Advances.

Many members of the United Nations are in agreement and following The Montreal Protocol. By the year 2050, The Montreal Protocol is expected to have restored the ozone layer if all of the defined requirements on ODS emissions are followed. So far, the protocol is considered by many to be the most successful international agreement in history.


Montreal Mortgage Systems – The Basics

images (2)Montreal is Canada’s second largest city. Currently, it is one of Canada’s prime spots of development that’s why a lot of people now days are opting to relocate there and invest. Majority of the people here are French speaking and is considered to be the largest community to speak French outside of France.

Due to the increasing demands of life these days, many people are opting for getting mortgages. With the development in Montreal, many residents are applying for mortgage loans; this is especially true for those who are just about to buy a house and those who are starting out in life.


A mortgage is a loan that helps you to finance the purchase or acquisition of a real estate. This loan usually have specified and set interest rates and payment periods. The one who borrows money is called the “Mortgagor” and the lender is the “Mortgagee”.

The mortgagor gives the mortgagee a lien, which is a legal claim to an asset that is used so that the loan will be secured. This is done as so that the lien would be the collateral for the loan of the mortgagor. Not being able to adhere with the terms and conditions can lead to various consequences, that of course have negative effects.

Mortgage The French Way

Since Montreal is mainly inhabited by French people, mortgage here also runs the French way adhering to French law. That is why they make use of the term “Hypotheque” in their realm of mortgages, unlike other places.

The Hypotheque is a French law. Basically, it states how the mortgage process runs. It is the proper right acquired by the mortgagee over the fixed property that was assigned to him by the mortgagor. It stands as a security for the debt, although it doesn’t necessarily mean that the mortgagee is placed in possession of the property.


There are two ways on how this can come up. First is by the conventional way. This occurs when the mortgagor expresses an agreement about the loan. An example is when the mortgagor expresses the conditions when he acquired the loan like listing the properties that he is willing to risk as payment for the mortgage loan that he is making.

Secondly, there is the legal or implied hypotheque. This type of takes place when it is the law that states the conditions on the mortgage loan. In other words it is also a lien for the whole mortgage loaning process.


If you are not able to pay the mortgage loan that you took. There are penalties that you are subjected to since you are under the agreement of the hypotheque. There are various kinds of penalties for the different loan product types. There are also different ways on how to compute these penalties. Lawsuit Loans for Financial Malpractice.

The general way for fixed mortgages is that depending on which is higher; you pay either interest for three months or, the loan rate and current rate for the remainder of the loan term difference.